Kanker: het blinde, dodelijke dogma van de genenjagers

Ik heb weinig tijd voor duiding, maar deze lezing door Thomas Seyfried is te belangrijk om alleen in een reactie te dumpen. Kanker een primair genetische ziekte? Het is onvoorstelbaar hoe veel mensen er anno 2016 nog rondlopen die dit denken, al het overweldigende bewijs voor een metabole, mitochondriële etiologie ten spijt.

Dit bericht werd geplaatst in Uncategorized. Bookmark de permalink .

33 reacties op Kanker: het blinde, dodelijke dogma van de genenjagers

  1. Andreas zegt:

    Geweldige lezing Melchior. Dank voor het delen. Ik ben eigenlijk benieuwd of jij nog doet aan Freeletics? Ik wil er weer mee beginnen al is het maar om het lichaam te stimuleren meer mitochondriën te laten maken.

    • Ha, Freeletics! You bet, Andreas! Bijna elke dag. Vanochtend een fijne Aphrodite gedaan op mijn paradijselijke nieuwe veldje, een door de gemeente aangelegd bootcampparkje bij mij om de hoek, min of meer in de achtertuin van ziekenhuis Rijnstate in Arnhem. Ik train daar al sinds het eind dit voorjaar werd opgeleverd en verbaas me er elke keer weer over dat ik daar helemaal alleen ben🙂 .

      Seyfried begint nu echt kwaad te worden🙂 . Hij zegt het hier en daar echt heel recht voor z’n raap.

      • Verrek, ‘mijn’ veldje wordt wel gebruikt! Ik ben er meestal rond 07:00 uur, das misschien een beetje vroeg🙂 .

        • Alex zegt:

          Op onderstaande tijden kun je deelnemen aan een obstacle Bootcamp:
          Maandag: 19.30u
          Dinsdag: 19.30u
          Donderdag: 19.00u
          Zaterdag: 10.15u

          dus nog genoeg gelegenheden voor vrije training, ook na 7.00u.🙂

          Heb je ook nog naar de andere video’s gekeken?😉

      • Andreas zegt:

        Het gekke is dat ik mij herinnerde dat jij het ooit eens ergens in een reactie had geplaatst en ik was nieuwsgierig.

        Vandaag maar weer beginnen. Voor mij is het inmiddels al weer ruim 2 jaar geleden dat ik het dagelijks deed. Helaas door ziekte van mijn vrouw (kanker) is het op de lange baan beland. Het enige wat ik momenteel doe is 2x in de week ruim 10K hardlopen en soms een HIIT sprint training. Op zich ben ik wel fit maar ik weet nu al dat Freeletics in het begin weer een uitdaging gaat worden en het mij eraan gaat herinneren dat ik spieren heb op plaatsen waarvan ik het bestaan niet (meer) weet🙂

        Groot gelijk heeft hij. Er wordt tegenwoordig zo veel voor zoete koek genomen wat letterlijk en figuurlijk natuurlijk niet goed is.
        De hamvraag is natuurlijk hoe zorg je voor veel en goed functionerende mitochondriën? Het zal een combinatie zijn van beweging, ‘gezond’ voedsel maar ook (zon)licht aangezien dit de elementen zijn waar we als mens groot mee zijn geworden.

        • O shit. Wens jullie het beste uiteraard. Smerige kutziekte.

          Freeletics. De burpees zijn het ergst🙂 . Maar ik ben er letterlijk verslaafd aan geraakt, net zo erg als aan zwemmen.

          Lean, mean mitochondriën zijn alles en de vraag hoe je ze zo houdt of terugkrijgt vormt het centrale thema van het verschrikkelijke project waar ik aan werk. Het is ook de reden waarom het zo lang duurt🙂 .

        • Andreas zegt:

          Dank en no worries. Het ziet er allemaal goed uit tot nu toe.

          Ja die burpees zijn in het begin niet leuk echter wel zeer effectief tegen een zwakke onderrug en je core vaart er op de lange termijn wel bij.
          Hou jij qua tijdstip van trainen ook nog rekening met ons circadiaan ritme?

          Mitochondriën (b)lijken een ‘banksaldo’ te zijn voor onze gezondheid.
          Dat snap ik. Take your time maar niet te lang hè🙂

  2. Hoi Alex,

    De andere lezingen staan prominent op mijn procrastinatielijst!!!

    Ik ben wel blij dat dat veldje er niet alleen voor mij ligt, ha, ha, ha. Had al plannen om een wekelijks Freeletics uurtje voor kneuzen en bejaarden te gaan organiseren🙂 .

  3. Dit interview met de jonge arts Priyanka Wali door Ivor Cummins is eigenlijk ook een aparte post waard. Hopelijk lezen/kijken er een paar fossielen mee:

  4. cobivink zegt:

    Hoe kom ik aan de tekst van de lezing Melchior Meijer?

    Cobi Vink-Stephan Tel.: 0031 651 91 89 83

    >

    • Cobi, ik heb geen tekst van mijn lezing🙂 .

      Wel een PP-presentatie die vrij duidelijk schijnt te zijn:

      https://melchiormeijer.wordpress.com/2014/03/21/eerste-paleo-lezing-in-de-metropool-zuidhorn/

    • Andreas zegt:

      Wanneer je in een youtube video het ondertitel icoon kunt zien betekend dit dat google transcript de text in ieder geval automatisch uit de video heeft kunnen halen. Soms wordt deze ook nog wel eens vertaald naar andere talen.

      Je kan met Google Chrome browser deze tekst in XML-formaat downloaden. Je kan hierna met wat filters de XML code verwijderen om zo uiteindelijk de ‘kale’ tekst over te houden. De kwaliteit van de tekst hangt overigens wel af van de audio kwaliteit van een video en dat er 1 persoon tegelijk spreekt.

      Het is mij in ieder geval gelukt om de tekst van de eerste video in deze blog te downloaden in xml formaat.

      Mocht er animo zijn dan kan ik wellicht vanavond de meest rommel er uit filteren.

      • Alex zegt:

        Ik vond eigenlijk dat Melchior de vraag met stijl had beantwoord Andreas.🙂 Was ook mijn eerste reactie, vandaar dat ik eerder niet reageerde…

        Transcript: (tekst/layout Youtube/Epigenetix Foundation)

        well thank you very much tom and angela for organizing this and inviting me here
        and have this opportunity to give you guys a an update on some of the things
        we’re doing in our attempt to manage cancer arm and i’ll be talking about
        some fundamentals of the disease and then i’ll give you an update on some of
        our unpublished work with mice and with people so let me go to the ok this is we
        always have a reality check and update
        what’s going on in the world of cancer we have the latest that just came out
        projections for 2016 I don’t expect you to see the details of these numbers
        I only want you to know they’re big and they’re getting bigger
        alright so we have the 2016 we have 1632 people a day dying from cancer
        we’re not really sure how many of these people are dying from the cancer from
        the treatments that they used to treat the disease
        this is a very difficult question and we also recognize now that brain cancer in
        children pediatric brain cancer has replaced leukemia is the number one
        killer cancer killer for children
        so this situation is not good and something has to be done
        so we have a question and this is a provocative question that needs to be
        addressed in relationship to the origin of the disease i think if we better
        understand the origin of the disease
        we will have a better chance at managing and preventing the disease
        all right so is cancer a nuclear genetic disease or is it a mitochondrial
        metabolic disease
        the question is weighted ok
        is the disease resulting from defects in the nucleus of the cell or is it
        resulting from defects in the cytoplasm and in particular the mitochondria that
        we’ve heard a lot about it this meeting of the cell this is a very important
        question because it will determine how we approach this disease with but with
        respect to Natalie management with but with respect to prevention
        all right the current dogma
        cancer is a genetic disease and the hallmarks of cancer by doctors hanahan
        and weinberg have solidified this over two major papers in 2000-2001 some of
        the most highly cited papers in the field of cancer cancer cells carry the
        oncogenic and tumor suppressor mutations that define cancer is a genetic disease
        a dogma is an irrefutable truth
        it’s a concept that is no longer challenged or investigated because a
        dogma is solid and how do I know this is a dogma
        how do we know that it’s a document when we teach general biology cell biology
        and biochemistry at the college level and you look at the sections on cancer
        cancer is a genetic disease
        there’s no other discussion about it you go to the NCI website
        cancer is a genetic disease there’s no discussion about this
        this is a dogma now they
        here’s the the the foundation of the dogma is the somatic mutation theory and
        that it solidifies the dogma and they use these simplistic diagrams a car that
        has no brakes and the accelerator is is maximally forward to replicate or to
        simulate what goes on in a population of cancer cells here these cells are at a
        control cell division out of control
        they have no brakes and their acceleration their growth acceleration
        is out of control and you have this situation
        so add a control cell growth dysregulated cell growth is the
        signature feature of this disease
        regardless of what tissue or organ it happens to attack then we place the
        hallmarks of the disease as Hannah Hannah and weinberg have done in this
        the six major hallmark sustaining proliferation of aiding growth
        activating invasion and metastasis enabling replicate of immortality
        inducing angiogenesis and resisting cell death all the result of nuclear-driven
        oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes
        now in the most recent rendition of their paper we now entered into emerging
        hallmarks hallmarks that have not yet reached the big six
        so this concludes this regulated cellular energetics and avoiding immune
        destruction
        if you read their paper in in detail
        it was it will say this regulated energetics is now considered an emerging
        hallmark that is programmed by proliferating inducing oncogenes
        preserving the dogma
        ok this preserves the dogma
        because we’re saying okay you can have this dysregulated energy metabolism but
        the oncogenes are controlling it
        everybody’s happy all right now we have here is another situation
        normal chromosomes normal cell now all of a sudden cancer arises from a series
        of our chance mutations in different genes in different places and they say
        maybe for wii nobody really knows how many genes are responsible for the
        origin of the disease some people say 12 for Michaels Stratton his group predict
        that complete cancer genome sequence will eventually identify 700 million
        mutations
        alright several several of these driver genes and passenger jeans and all this
        kind of stuff and they better calling in a Watson right the IBM computer down to
        md anderson to try to figure out what’s going on with all these jeans
        good luck to that all right now here we have a person staring into a screen
        individuals cancer cells are genetically tested for personalized therapy
        she’s going to look at these images and breast cancer cells being examined to
        see if they possess extra copies of a particular gene and based on that
        genetic information they’re going to either make some sort of a prognosis or
        they’re going to elicit some sort of therapy and we know from President
        Obama’s speech a couple of weeks ago and he emphasized in a state of the union
        speech personalized therapy is the way we’re going to manage this disease and
        we’re going to have the honor of job Joe Biden lead the charge
        now I believe Joe Biden has a good heart and I think because the loss of his son
        the glioblastoma
        he has an intrinsic interest to do something about managing cancer
        the question is is he going to receive the information related to the dog park
        or maybe he might want to consider other
        shins or other possibilities and this is what we don’t yet know
        now one of the most important things about cancer is metastasis
        this is what ultimately kills almost all the people that have the disease either
        the DS either that process itself or the attempts to stop that process
        this is a diagram here you have the cancer cells and they go through this
        casting it is cascade it’s a it’s a very stereotypical cascade
        regardless of where the cancer comes from it comes from along the :
        the breast you know the bladder it goes through the cancer cells invade ok these
        green cells of the end they break through the basement membrane and enter
        into the local tissue then they in travis eight enter into the circulation
        these are very sophisticated biological processes by which this happens they a
        immune systems for survival ok
        how come they’re surviving the immune system isn’t will come to that later on
        but then they immunosuppressed the immune system and they extravasation
        they leave the bloodstream and and and enter and form these Kyle distant
        colonization which make it means that you can’t cut this out there spreading
        all over the place so it becomes a very difficult disease but this is a very
        stereotypical pattern now according to the dogma the epithelial-mesenchymal
        transition is designed to explain this chance mutations happen in these cells
        that shit the cells through these chants mutations enter into the bloodstream and
        then many of these effects of the chance mutations become reversed in some
        unknown way and then they start of replicating of the way they were before
        they were actually entering into the bloodstream
        now I don’t know how a bunch of chance mutations could constantly produce a
        very sticky or stereo typical pattern
        how to chance events caused a non chance event
        I don’t know now we have a problem
        how can we advance new metabolic therapies that the 800-pound gorilla who
        thinks cancer is a genetic disease
        who is the gorilla the National Cancer Institute academic and pharmaceutical
        cancer industries
        all right dogma rules if you want to come up with a new therapy
        you better make sure it’s its associated with dogma
        now we can say we don’t need to do that and we can putz around here with these
        metabolic therapies but they will be always be on the periphery
        they’re not going to be mainstream until the gorilla on NASA’s the room now how
        are you going to do that
        all right you can just do it by continuing to do what many people in
        this room are doing or you can try to undermine the document with the evidence
        that exists and this is what I’m trying to do through the scientific argument
        the scientific argument and the debate
        related to this disease so let’s look at the element of the evidence the
        challenges the somatic mutation theory
        okay i’m going to go through a series of experiments that we’re done over the
        years that are inconsistent with the dogma
        this work was done by dr. McDonald who I had the opportunity to talk to at the
        University of Minnesota’s a professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota
        and he did these studies way back in nineteen sixty-nine where he had this a
        very aggressive renal tumor in the Frog
        ok it’s a lethal meant a malignant tumor at front comes from the kidney and the
        luck
        frog what what McDonough mckinnell did is he took them to sell out of that the
        tumor removed the nucleus from the tumor and put it into a nucleated fertilized
        egg that had normal cytoplasm
        so you take this out the nucleus that has the tumor suppressor genes of the
        optimum abnormal oncogenes meet defect and you put it into a new cytoplasm and
        he generated this tadpole
        all right there was no dysregulated cell growth in the tent pole
        you could cut the tail off the tail would grow back and this thing
        the problem is the tadpole never could mature into a fully differentiated
        mature fraud
        so there was something in that cancer nucleus that block development but it
        certainly didn’t cause the signature met that the signature defect which is this
        prefer
        asian findings are inconsistent with the somatic mutation theory and then I
        Beatrice minutes and Carla men see leaders in the field of developmental
        biology took cancer cells from a very malignant teratoma and put these whole
        cells into the blastocysts and develop the mouse
        that was a mixture of the tumor cell origin and and the end the other art and
        the mouse was was healthy except for a few little spots but there but their
        their their their conclusion was conversion to neoplasia does not involve
        structural changes in the nuclear genome
        ok well what happened to the tumor suppressor and the oncogenes right if
        this is if this is the case the findings are inconsistent with the somatic
        mutation theory
        Jim Morgan’s group from st. Jude’s medical hospital in in memphis tennessee
        was studying midgel blastoma to a very aggressive childhood brain tumor in the
        cerebellum they had knocked out a gene patch then they made these tumors and
        they took the nucleus and a of the of the modulo blastoma and they and they
        put it into an embryonic stem cell and they and they said although
        medulloblastoma derived embryos aborted not exhibited uncontrolled proliferation
        resembling tumor Genesis what happened to the oncogenes and these tumor
        suppressor genes
        here’s this embryo again it aborted something is in those the cancer nucleus
        that’s blocking development but it’s not causing the signature phenotype which is
        up
        unbridled proliferation their inconsistent
        this is work done by rudy danish at MIT and his group where they took melanoma
        tumors characterized genetically the mutations that were in the melanoma took
        the nucleus of the melanoma put it into an embryonic stem cell and cloned mouse
        from the melanoma nucleus
        ok the presence of major genetic abnormalities in the mice clone from the
        tumor provides unequivocal genomic evidence that the mice were cloned from
        the tumor nucleus where is that this regulated
        what up the mice aborted ok just like the frog and and just and just like the
        modulo blastoma something in that cancer cell nucleus that’s damaged is a
        boarding development but it’s not causing the signature defect
        according to the document that you would have expected because the phenotype
        comes from the nucleus
        now this is a very important paper by many career party from baylor college of
        medicine and and his group there now Benny decided to look at the train what
        let’s not transfer the nucleus let’s transfer the mitochondria
        so he took very aggressive breast cancer highly malignant breast cancer cells and
        he replaced the mitochondria in the breast cancer self with a normal
        mitochondria and non-cancer a non-cancerous mitochondria
        he characterized the upregulated oncogenes and the genetic abnormalities
        in the breast cancer from the malignant cells
        he puts the mitochondria from the normal and the oncogenes turn off and their
        energy metabolism of the cells and the cells stop growing and then when he did
        the reverse experiment took the very cancerous mitochondria and put it into
        extremely slow growing tumors these tumors went what went berserk and he
        grew them in the mice to show this
        ok the mitochondria calling the shots here now what i did just recently over
        the summer I kind of bundled I’ve only given you a small snapshot of some of
        these papers you have to go and read all of this for yourselves
        so what I did in this paper is I throughout the data and I said let’s
        interpret the data based on the the the somatic mutation theory and based on the
        mitochondrial metabolic theory and you come to the conclusion of what you think
        this is telling us because if it’s not if it’s telling us that this is not a
        nuclear genetic disease then we have gone seriously off track and it’s takes
        time to to to to look into this
        so this little diagram that circulating through the web that we my students and
        I put together to give us a little picture of what’s going on in a very
        simplistic way this figure
        normal cells to get normal cells tumor cells to get tumor cells
        what is responsible for the dysregulated phenotype is that the defects in the
        nucleus or is it the defects in the cytoplasm in the mitochondria remove the
        nucleus to a normal cell you get normal cells sometimes normal tissues but it
        aborts there’s something going on with this cancer gene you do the reverse
        experiments which has been done by Israel shaper and you put a normal
        nucleus into a tumor and you get debt you get either tumor cells are dead
        cells you don’t get normal cells again we’re seeing evidence that challenges
        the dogma that cancer is a genetic
        disease so if somatic mutations are not the origin of cancer
        then how do cancer cells arise big question
        ok let’s throw off the dogs ok now we’re really what we’re groping now
        no we’re not groping warburg had pegged a long time ago
        ok a very dynamic scientists from the 20th century
        he clearly stated cancer arises from damage to cellular respiration and and
        we saw this from from dr. buses a presentation yesterday energy through
        fermentation gradually compensates for insufficient respiration cancer cells
        continue to ferment lactate in the presence of oxygen which is the Warburg
        effect big field of research in cancer metabolism
        what is what where does the Warburg effect come from what controls the water
        if everybody’s trying to figure out how the oncology oncogenes do drive the
        Warburg effect but why are the oncogenes up because they have defective
        respiration warburg also clearly defined the nature of the Warburg effect that’s
        not a mystery at regardless of what I people say enhance fermentation
        now he is it enhanced fermentation is the signature metabolic defect malady
        and all these cancer cells to some degree or another some cancer cells a
        little bit of respiration some of the very few recipes but nevertheless
        insufficient respiration is the common metabolic melody malady
        all right every cell in that tumor is a different genetic entity they will have
        different genetic mutations every cell in the tumor
        you close them out they’re all different from each other why do we persist on
        focusing on the unique differences of every cell in the tumor looking for the
        for the therapy when the common metabolic malady is if it is sitting
        right there in front of us
        why we don’t we don’t do that why don’t we focus on the common defect rather
        than you can meet unique defect in every single cell
        ok very simplistic overview of energy metabolism
        most of our energy comes from oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria
        breathing in the good air exhale exhale the bad air co2 goes out from the food
        away bring in their respiring or most of the energy in our body is coming from
        oxidative phosphorylation very
        all energy comes from substrate level for these are primitive forms of energy
        substrate level phosphorylation you get into the glycolytic pathway in in the
        cytoplasm and also in the krebs cycle the citric acid cycle you can get some
        energy through the sucks and Yoko a synth a step in there which can get
        upregulated in cancer
        I guess what happens in the tumor cells now is there is a shift away from rocks
        for us to these more primitive substrate level phosphorylation this is seen that
        to some degree or another
        okay why is there a shift because if they don’t make the shift they’re going
        to die
        all right if only cells that can upregulate substrate level
        phosphorylation can tolerate a loss and not in respiration
        otherwise the cells die you’re never going to get cancer so a lot of people
        say oh there’s nothing wrong with the mitochondrion tumors when you look at it
        under the electron microscope you see often a lot of different kinds of
        problems and we said we just heard from John that these are tubes
        so these are tubes running through a suspicion of this organelle and this is
        the barrel Orthodox shape of the CD stripes here
        these are the cristae they contain the proteins of the electron transport chain
        and this lipid cardiolipin of the elect these lipids and proteins work together
        and they form these super complex is to generate the energy that we need to
        respire ourselves and generate the energy for our body
        this is a glioblastoma multiforme me that we heard about yesterday and they
        have a ghost what they called crystalis leading to ghost mitochondria structure
        dictates function
        the very structures are missing too about to a large degree in the in the
        mitochondria of the GBM and in the end a mitochondrial a lot of cancers
        now they’re not all cancers don’t look exactly like this some have massive
        numbers of mitochondria but they’re all dysmorphic in one way or another
        most cells have very few mitochondrion the cancer cells but many of them have
        this pete peterson at Johns Hopkins did a huge study never found a tumor cells
        that had completely normal numbers of structures of mitochondria mitochondria
        defective
        if these mitochondria defective these cells are not going to be able to
        respire and in order to respire effectively they’re going to have to go
        to have to go back to some sort of level of fermentation
        otherwise they’re going to die there’s no other way you can get energy
        we looked at we we look at all this and there’s a lot of evidence to show this
        now the question is how do you put all this together if you’re going to come up
        with a new kind of a view of cancer
        you have to be able to link all of the information that’s been done on this
        disease and then reinterpret it in light of a different kind of it
        view the mitochondrial metabolic theory of cancer
        ok so we take the emphasis away now from the nucleus and we put it on the
        mitochondria
        all right and this is the oncogenic paradox that has prepared as perplexed
        scientists for decades even in the book the Emperor of all maladies to do the
        mortgagees book that was on the bestseller list
        she was struggling you going to read this book for we don’t understand how
        it’s possible that we can have all these provocative agents from the environment
        causing cancer through a common path of physiological mechanism this challenge
        Albert sink yogi Nobel Prize winner of this challenge on cars is a brawny
        people we don’t understand how a carcinogens radiation hypoxia
        inflammation rare inherited mutations p53 Oh cancer must be a genetic disease
        because a person inherited the warburg said you have many secondary causes of
        cancer is only one primary cause that might damage the respiration those p53
        mutations that you inherit in the genome damage the respiration so distracting
        one and some of these others that you hear about grass oncogenes viruses age
        all of these things can produce cancer in various tissues what do they do they
        produce Ross reactive oxygen species
        Ross are known to be carcinogenic and mutagenic all right so they’re coming
        out of the mitochondria and they’re causing the genomic mutations that you
        see in the nucleus
        they feed back and they cause further damage on the efficiency of the
        respiration the the mitochondria signal the nucleus
        if you’re going to survive we have to go to alternative energy
        what’s going to drive the alternative energy the oncogenes that transcription
        factors for the fermentation pathways so they’re in effect they’re not the cause
        it’s very important to recognize this because it’s extremely important on how
        we’re going to deal with this disease if we understand the origin so what happens
        then this is a progressive situation
        it’s an escalation of biological chaos
        eventually leading to these ghosts mitochondria eventually shifting from
        rock from from oxidative phosphorylation to substrate level phosphorylation so
        the cell now becomes more and more fermentative during the progression of
        the cancer genomics is all shot to hell is collecting all these mutations you
        get a Warburg effect which is the shift food the fermentation
        now we can begin to link this that the hallmarks of cancer
        the defective respiration and this whole shift from from respiration to
        fermentation
        so that when you damage the cells respiration the mitochondria keeping
        those cells in a differentiated state when that mitochondria becomes
        dysfunctional cells begin to ferment when the cells for men they begin to
        take on the characteristics that organisms had on the planet before
        oxygen came in
        alright so during that time when there was no oxygen in the atmosphere all the
        cells were highly fermentative in a highly reduced state and proliferated
        uncontrollably
        all right in a in a in a unbridled proliferation
        okay if that’s the case then you can account for the three major the first
        three major concepts of the whole of all of this is the result of these cells
        returning to their primitive state sustained angiogenesis vascularization
        of the tumor that everyone massive emphasis going on this
        the cells are blown out lactic acid into the micro environment creating a
        specification which is telling the Sith the body to this is a wound we got it
        going to and heal this the back of the blood vessels come in
        it’s coming in because of the destabilized energy metabolism and those
        out
        they evade a potato cesis ok what controls a potato cesis cytochrome C in
        the mitochondria mitochondria being blown out there for these cells are
        escaping their normal program death
        now this is that the big dog here
        metastatic metastasis all right how do we link
        how do we link the metabolic theory of the mitochondrial metabolic theory into
        the most important aspect of cancer
        there is growing appreciation that the metastatic cell is a fused hybrid from
        our immune system with these tumor cells
        this is not well appreciated because it’s not consistent with the epithelium
        his ankle transition of the dogma
        but there’s a growing evidence so we have normal cells we have a beginning
        dysplastic carcinoma inside to the cells now begin to throw out a little lactic
        acid our macro fashions of the immune cells come in as facilitators of wound
        healing and the wound doesn’t heal in this chronic condition persists over
        time the to facilitate wound healing the macrophages fuse with these cells so in
        the fusion process these cells are now picking up this functional mitochondria
        from the from these from these self that cannot and can’t do not metastasize
        these cells these this condition these few hybrids now that macrophages live in
        the circulation
        they enter and exit extravasated travels eight there are militia in our body to
        heal
        bacterial infections help that help facilitate wound healing
        these cells are already programmed to do all the things in the medicine
        metastasis cascade
        you don’t have to have new mutations as a matter of fact some of the most
        metastatic cells have no mutations
        I don’t know how the god with deals with that the other thing you have to realize
        that as a cell of the immune system
        glutamine now becomes a major fuel in addition to glucose are immune cells are
        glutamine hogs
        that’s because of their biology and what their program to do so it’s very
        important to recognize that what we have done is unleashed a beast that is
        metabolically dysregulated so if most cancers express the Warburg effect as
        the result every of impaired respirate what are the therapy ok now let’s look
        at the therapies
        okay once we have a clear a more clear understanding of the nature and the
        biology of what cancer actually is now we can begin to think about those kinds
        of therapies that might be more effective or a better than what we
        presently have
        ok one strategy is to reduce levels of fermentable fuels while elevating levels
        of non fermentable fuels a fermentation is what’s keeping those guys alive
        we need to recognize that and deprive them of the fuels that are allowing them
        to grow
        ok so let’s look at the metabolism of glucose and glutamine are the prime
        fermentable fuels for this cell
        these cells are living in hypoxic environment ok glucose comes in as
        glucose 6-phosphate can be metabolized through the end
        meyerhoff pathway getting us nice substitute lot of substrate lot of
        energy through the glycolytic pathway blowing out lactic acid into the
        microenvironment also some of that some of the pyruvate can enter into the
        citric acid cycle come out is situated for the synthesis of lipids using the
        other part of the pathway the pentose phosphate pathway which is upregulated
        glutathione keeping these cells from dying from the ross this glutathione is
        upregulated in these cells that they used nadph was also a substrate for
        building fatty acids
        so you’re getting and of course you’re building the precursors for DNA
        synthesis so these cells can proliferate using glucose is the substrate on the
        other side you get glutamine coming in split by the glutaminase that am I
        nitrogen is now coming in and now forming the two major Khan nitrogen
        carbons are going to make the DNA and RNA and all this with the proliferation
        that glutamate can be dumped back out into the out side which in the brain is
        deadly because going to create excitotoxic death and not in the closest
        and it’s going to facilitate rapid growth or the glutamate can be trans
        amity to alpha keita glue to rate using either at the the reductive pathway or
        the oxidative pathway either one to generate more substrates for the growth
        of the cell so glutamine and glucose
        now if you and as Angeles going to talk about if you shut down the glucose and
        you starve them of this and then you give them a hyperbaric oxygen you could
        potentially overwhelm their antioxidant capacity and kill them naturally by
        upregulating a reactive oxygen species and the ketones from the ketogenic diets
        will protect normal cells from this from this attack
        so this is the thing everybody’s always you can we get a drug that’s going to
        kill tumor cells and not hurt
        so far that drug doesn’t exist but it can ok
        calorie restriction metabolic cancer intervention we’ve heard about this
        total dietary restriction differs from starvation and the fact that it
        maintains minerals and nutrients enhances mitochondrial biogenesis that
        some of these cancer cells that might be on the threshold could potentially be
        returned to the society of cells if you could read reactivate their mitochondria
        not poisoning
        a
        individuals to reactivate that mitochondria alright so we have reduced
        now if we go into calorie restriction blood sugar goes down
        insulin goes down glucagon turns on we heard about this yesterday
        ok we start mobilizing fats water-soluble break down fat products by
        the hydroxy butyrate acetone blows out on the breath
        ok so we begin to shift the whole metabolic environment by doing calorie
        restriction
        now let’s look at some of the data from some of I know this is a study we did
        using the Ziegler brother 0 carbohydrate ketogenic diet standard diet ketogenic
        diet unrestricted like the my seat all they want and restricted calorie
        restricted to reduce body weight by about fifteen percent now look at this
        standard diet unrestricted tumors grow fast you restrict the count that high
        carbohydrate diet the tumors grow slow you now here the ketogenic diet
        unrestricted makes the tumors grow even faster
        the ketogenic diet you have to know how to use a submitted it’s a tool if you
        don’t know how to use it you get you can have problems you restrict the diet yes
        you get this
        now we saw the same effects using the trishas quito count the same same exact
        findings from that from what I want to say not all these ketogenic diets are
        the same
        alright some some you can eat ad libitum i’ll show you data for that when you
        don’t we don’t get necessarily something like this so there’s some differences
        here and also some of the tumors respond differently
        that’s another thing what we do each one of these mice are different under a
        different diet condition and we use linear regression analysis as glucose
        goes down ketones go up an evolutionarily conserved adaptation as
        glucose goes down to more weight goes down and we heard that yesterday from
        dr. Barth
        there’s a direct correlation in the blood between how fast your tumor grows
        and how much blood sugar you have and that’s we showed this in the mouse and
        now it’s been shown for breast cancer and for brain cancer and from variety of
        other things
        now what are the mechanisms people love to know the mechanism not gonna have
        time to go through all over a massive amounts of data but calorie restriction
        targets multiple cancer hallmarks it down regulates the vascular endothelial
        growth factor expression for angiogenesis it operates through the
        nf-kappab eep pathway down regulating those signaling cascades it’s pro a
        platonic it’s killing the tumor cells by a pathetic mechanism so
        now what we’ve done the mechanisms in the mice and we’ve done a lot of work
        like this
        of course we want to look at brain cancer we’ve done a lot of work on brain
        cancer we developed a very excellent model for human glioblastoma the end
        this GBM model it fulfills all of the characteristics that you see in human
        GBM
        this is one of our first slide studies on just calorie restriction alone
        here’s the brain you put the team’s dark cells here these are the tumor cells and
        as dr. boss said yesterday
        these cells invade right way these cells you put the sails here they’ll invade
        right across the corpus callosum
        they’ll go to the brainstem go to the cerebellum these cells are all out
        through the brain
        there’s no way you’re going to be able to surgically resected developed this
        however we put some ice on calorie restriction and you can see that the
        demarcation of the tumor becomes much sharper under calorie restriction and as
        dr. boss said yesterday we know that if you the more you can do bolt-on a cancer
        patient
        the greater the longer that person is going to live if so I say why white mean
        when a person has the brain tumor they going to get the brain tumor out right
        away
        why don’t you put them on a calorie-restricted ketogenic night
        shrink the tumor and then take the tumor out and you’re going to do you’re going
        to guarantee that the patient is going to live longer for some of it for some
        reason soon as the poor patient gets 90 we got to take that tumor out right away
        it’s just like with the poor guys even know what’s going on you know nor does
        the neurosurgeon most of the time
        except for the ones that at you pit Joe maroon
        all right can the ketogenic diet be effective the metabolic management of of
        brain cancer in people
        ok the first study was done by linden Emily she took two little kids that were
        failing the standard of care and they were not responding and she put them on
        the ketogenic diet
        loke reduced blood sugar elevated ketones and they had a remarkable
        recovery
        the quality of life of those kids improved significantly
        now the way you’re going to see that I want I cannot emphasize more get her PhD
        dissertation from the library at Case Western and read how she dealt with this
        incredible challenge it when you read what would happen to those little kids
        it breaks your heart what those kids went through and to see how they
        recovered and the quality of life improved with this ketogenic diet
        one kid lived another couple of years the other one was lost to follow-up we
        think that we try to figure it out we just they couldn’t figure out maybe
        maybe the child is still life that we don’t know but it was lost to follow-up
        now what I don’t understand is this was shown back in 95 it it works
        why are we not using this in pediatric oncology
        you know we have some of the greatest minds here using the same therapy for
        epilepsy children in debt with epilepsy are being treated with these ketogenic
        diets but little kids with brain tumors or not
        what is going on with that ok we publish the second paper as you saw yesterday in
        nutrition and metabolism from this individual that was 65 years old and she
        had a memory loss and you saw the data i’m not going to show you again but dr.
        buss showed it yesterday
        the tumor was shrunk the MRI PET scans everybody was quite excited called
        radiological resolution doesn’t happen often it can happen occasionally on
        standard of care but it doesn’t happen often that work we got several more
        positive signs that the individual thought they were out of the woods then
        went back up off the diet the tumor return
        ok and rather than going back on the diet they went on avastin all right
        I’ve written about avastin were staying
        drug it was taken off the market for breast cancer
        why are we still using it for brain cancer it causes the cells to diffuse
        through the brain
        you’re never gonna get this is all because of the images look a little bit
        better
        ok and you saw this we published this in Lancet Oncology originally and this is
        the standard of care
        we’re not going to make any major advances until we get rid of that
        standard of care i don’t care what anybody says you create a perfect storm
        of metabolic abnormalities in the brain you saw it yesterday
        we’re releasing glutamine in large quantities into the brain
        we’re trying to stamp it by using high-dose dexamethasone
        this is increasing glucose many of these brain tumors are infected with the human
        cytomegalovirus
        this is like a supercharger for using glucose and blue to me
        all right so we got a big problem here and as mycoplasma in those tumors
        not all but some we got all this crap in there and we’re freeing up the fuels
        that are going to keep those cells alive and and and save them and facilitate
        their growth
        now let’s look at the how it works stop this is the standard of care
        radiation alone none of the people survived
        they all died now his olamide was considered the breakthrough
        I was at the meeting when tim is all mine was so over this is the this is
        that this is the weekend work it were increasing progression-free survival by
        a significant amount of we combine
        tim is olamide with radiotherapy then a paper comes out 10 is all might
        increases driver mutations
        this is out from dr. Johnson’s group at ucsf what’s going on how are you taking
        ten missoula might which is helping the patients live a little bit longer
        progression-free and at the same time that they’re they’re they’re they’re
        getting driver mutations
        what’s going on that’s the kind of how you explain this on the dog
        ok one of the adverse effects of 10 is all my diarrhea fatigue nausea and
        vomiting in some patients
        those are all indirect forms of calorie restriction now what would happen if we
        replaced him as olamide with a calorie-restricted ketogenic diet
        something like Adrian check is doing
        do you think we could get a better a better
        if we’re combining a radiation with a restricted ketogenic diet this evidence
        to say that’s true
        what happens we get ready to get rid of radiation altogether
        god forbid the hospitals will lose their money
        all right i’m going to give you an update on individual that we’ve been
        working with for several years now
        this person presented with gait disturbance at age 56
        they were given her flippers to improve her swimming and you know
        exit biking and all this kind of stuff didn’t go away she was dying tumor is
        inoperable diffuse infiltrate of brainstem glioma and in 2012 she
        initiated a restricted ketogenic diet with supplements metformin dichloro
        acetate and curcumin she had to get off the dca after a while because it’s
        causing some peripheral peripheral neuropathy conditions
        she was up what went to cease five major medical hospitals in Europe and the
        United States refused recommended chemo and radiotherapy from five major medical
        centers so she’s not on any standard of care except the ketogenic diet and
        supplement
        I talked to her last week the tumor the tumor can MRI says the tumor is not
        going away it grows very very slowly it’s still there but she still drives a
        car
        she’s in relatively good health but she’s depressed I told to stop getting
        the MRIs every time you get the MRI you get the present
        all right she’s already out that she’s six years out you know this diffusion if
        you have little children have it’s devastating they die very quickly
        unfortunately but if you’re in it years you can live maybe 10 or or or or or 15
        years with this kind of a tumor but then it gets bad again when you get over age
        55
        you know in the literature we know she’s out now almost six years ago in on seven
        years with this tumor and as we know of only one other person at least presented
        in a deliberate literature at least that we know of that live 29 years so she’s
        out the stratosphere survival without any standard of care
        now we try to we learned a lot from this one case and you know we tried to open
        up a
        elevate ketones and reduce glucose but each one of these is that the measure
        the measurements every day measuring glucose and ketones over months so we
        have hundreds and hundreds of measurements of glucose and ketones in
        this one person
        now the problem of course is that you see a lot of scatter we’re trying to
        develop a tape up a procedure that can be used in clinical trials and things
        like this and my students and I are looking at the data and we’re going man
        this is going to be tough to do in a clinical
        how are these people and then you know she she goes out and gets into she has a
        handicapped parking spot
        she goes into some some guys parked in handicapped parking spot and the next
        thing you know she has a big blood sugar and I think Colin champion on the web
        showing how how emotional stress and all these things can do this all right so we
        developed the glucose ketone index as a as a biomarker to help evaluate this you
        get the ratios and weary plotted her data and now it looks much more more
        much more stable and we think this is going to be an effective way to do this
        I also want to say that um we’re going to try to validate in in our GBM model
        and the GBM people say it doesn’t attach that’s true it doesn’t it rarely come
        out of the brain but if you take those cells and humans human cells can get
        outside the brain
        they spread through the whole the whole mouse just like this so this is mrs. GBM
        outside the brain and it’s been reported and we have a so we can bioluminescence
        the tumor cells you can see the liver full of cancer spleen as well so what we
        did
        this is our new unpublished study look at how beautiful the body weights are
        now this is a ketogenic diet kitchen that the mice to lose weight a little
        after a while so it’s the one that dominic and Angela we all use we keep
        the body weights really tight
        standard unrestricted restricted ketogenic diet unrestricted glucose is
        high and the unrestricted groups and low in the restricted groups
        look how high the ketones go when you restrict the ketogenic diet if you can
        get those ketones up they’ll be toxic to the tumor cells
        sure they go up if you eat ketogenic diet all but they but they won’t go up
        as high unless you restrict and the g ki is the lowest and here’s the results now
        uh you can see that a standard diet restricted had no effect in this tumor
        in this tumor because we think it’s using glue to me and now you know Jenna
        diet restricted had
        best effect and unrestricted replicates with dominic and Angela found yes there
        is some effect but the best effect is when you restricted diet
        the important thing is the blood sugar here and here is the same but the
        therapeutic benefit is much greater in the restricted diet
        we did a linear regression analysis as as the key glucose ketone index goes
        down
        survival of the mice goes up so it validates that this gk I could be
        effective
        we also know the 25-percent of brain cancer patients die for metastasis to
        the brain
        the restricted diet significantly reduces metastasis to the brain
        the problem is that these tumor cells are mutated these these mutated tumor
        cells will not be able to adjust the rapid shifts in dietary conditions
        calorie-restricted diet and restricted raw vegan diets one or the other
        putting on the press the pulse are drugs
        hyperbaric oxygen procedures non toxic drug targeting for glucose including me
        most of what we’re talking about so far is targeting glucose and elevating
        ketones with the hope that we’re going to stop this disease
        we got to hit that glutamine if we don’t take care of the glutamine we’re not
        going to be completely successful and this is a problem
        it’s so much more difficult to target luda me that it is the target glucose
        conclusions
        cancer is more of a minor chondral metabolic disease than it is a nuclear
        genetic disease and until this becomes more widely known and recognized
        we’re going to be we’re going to see those numbers go up the body count is
        going to go up
        preclinical in case report studies indicate that restricted diets can be
        effective non-toxic metabolic therapy for managing malignant cancers and
        children and adults the g ki index can predict the success of a metabolic
        metabolic therapy for cancer
        I’d like to thank all of my many collaborators that are here Angela
        dominic and Joe maroon Jeff Bhasker equal replace tempted on this on the
        schedule that the funding agencies my own recent my own institution
        George you foundation was very interested in this travis kristofferson
        single cause single cure fund foundation
        so these are the small organizations that are helping us continue to do this
        because i am i am convinced that we will be successful in managing cancer without
        toxicity
        thank you for your time
        yeah
        thank you
        thank you very much thank you I appreciate that
        any questions
        Susan yes
        the lesson is referred and everything she had
        would you like
        materials and I
        the game a little simple instruction manual for you
        well she just
        anyway so it’s only me
        just last week I’m going to have surgery
        visit you were going to occur cetera and so the question is do you know if
        possible can survive this
        at this point down in your room tours we heard entry operator
        genetic testing
        I don’t need oh I’m just letting you know
        well you know hope we never say there’s no hope
        we know people who have gone who had advanced cancers who went on this we we
        don’t cure but we give a higher quality of life
        i would say that we that the metabolic therapy if done correctly can give
        people a longer period of time at a higher quality of life
        I don’t think it’s possible to stop this tumor at that stage with with with a
        ketogenic diet alone if they’re going to do a hyperbaric oxygen
        you have to have that that that that has to be in up in a high ketosis state it’s
        a little risky because it but it can work at this advanced age
        Andrew uh-uh Scarborough is showing it we have other people that are showing I
        think Mindy LOL had some very good success with this
        there’s always hope we’re not saying we can cure but we can certainly delay
        until we can knock out that glutamine I don’t think we’re going to be able to
        cure this disease but if we had a drug which we don’t yet have that could work
        I think the op the hope and the prognosis would be much better
        ok maybe I meet with that lovely
        a lot of success in my view you varies community activism moving off the start
        with petitions
        so what are you ready
        is writing letters of my popular places dinner tonight and
        he wants to design
        for trying to get it died at least natural
        whatever the going down the problem is cancer
        you think some love and the doctors are all
        let him find diamonds that someone drugged you know last month maybe five
        different alternatives you know Susan don’t know but that’s just the person
        themselves that individual has to make this decision
        okay that that person ok
        and that’s the way it’s going to change yeah I know because you know sometimes
        we do all we can
        and if the person is not there it’s just it’s just that there’s a commitment that
        it has to be an understanding these are very difficult everyone is a unique case
        you know the family has to be involved because the whole family has to
        participate in there why them while they’re misguided and there’s an
        institutional barrier to this so this is a tough this is a very tough situation
        I know I don’t know I think you have
        stand top is always you have been arguing against the vagine document for
        use
        very good
        as their response from the gorilla in the room
        yeah
        I mean probably
        you know the have you ever been to Nico Japan the monkeys
        hear no evil speak no evil see no evil that’s what you get
        you’ve been noticed well this man
        there’s behind the door response all right that that we we know about yeah
        maybe Travis can tell you about the behind the door response on this but you
        know it you’re threatening up a whole establishment here
        I mean let’s be honest you know what do you think they’re going to run out the
        streets and say hey let’s drop our our new up tivo on our commercial putting it
        on the wall of the series trade at this year’s building in Chicago
        I mean this is it is you can use this is a big problem but a table there’s ways
        to get around it with with global budgeting
        there’s a financial incentive to do some of this under the Obamacare or some
        derivation of that that might fall in fact that the Democratic the got the
        poor Democrat who doesn’t get anything from from Baltimore there
        I saw him on the debate the other day I don’t know what even know what his name
        is he’s always behind the other two you know but he casually he actually said
        we’re using this kind of a therapy or this kind of a of a strategy and i found
        that whoa it
        maybe we should look at that guy a little a little more I know what’s his
        name there the guy from Bolton o’malley s
        maybe we should take another look at mr. O’Malley ok
        so talk about water straight to my readings
        you know what we need when it doesn’t
        what we do
        or we are drinking waters fine just fine
        water and that’s how and line and and actually I’m just like you
        I you know I think it’s an extremely important issue it may work orally with
        the diet
        I haven’t tried it i would love to try it these are some of the things that if
        we had the money we could do you get what you know that’s the problem
        and as adrian and i have no is it easy to get money for this Adrian
        yes you know that’s the situation just a very unusual
        we have been using it
        and I up front and wait about that physicians are pretty years rewarded
        they were not going to go a little child based on our work and patience to
        mention one elbow said they were
        why are obligations and is well positioned
        exactly the same thing necklace
        it was pushing it was the asian parents and push it
        so I think that’s where the power is and everyone
        community we have previously so much energy so you have any expectations in
        order to push things and do things
        it I agree and I want to thank you for the work that you’ve done at that that
        the Barrows because you’ve been an instrumental force and and then pushing
        this forward thank you
        that’s Adrian check barrows but they have barriers neurological center in in
        phoenix arizona
        very very very
        I to a free and West castro and hanging there’s a lot of
        : you’re working others and discussion
        about a three
        operation so the information you just presented
        the is there a significant difference in how you manage a two or a three girls or
        more delivery
        no I think we would use the same strategy
        basically the those have you have a lot more to play it play around time that
        the tumors grow much slower so so the issue is can you make them grow even
        slower and if you can get them even to a slower growth
        can we move in with a hyperbaric oxygen in certain drugs that will work
        synergistically with the diet too kind of polish those those cells off so you
        know that’s my strategy that’s what I would do
        but as I want to say this is an exterior in a very infant stage of this procedure
        we’re at the very beginning of this new phase of of managing cancer and this
        things that we don’t yet know and we learned a lot from just single patients
        and how they responded the data that we get back from them so but but you can we
        can definitely I think I don’t want to say for sure we don’t know anything
        until be to actually get the data but we can slow those tumor cells down and then
        we would work through a strict strategy to keep them under control
        grass spend a little time this
        one of our education and respected as a preacher
        and
        second edition expected to continue to grow and she’s one of the two then
        fine because it is
        it was great so sorry just making a statement about it
        I gone three standard of care and i found out about you jack
        diet during the following chemo and what I went through
        follow on people anxious reduction in my brain tumor size . now work
        its accuracy means obviously is a grade
        also discussed baston i am very good
        graduate as a GM advisor survivor yet recurrences of is ready to work very
        protective order to find us
        he actually
        production
        besides it
        and basically not detectable on skins
        q GBM recurrence so it
        it really doesn’t yeah what we want to make sure it works better
        you know that that’s that’s that this is a good first step but the idea is can we
        can can you come back in 25 years and so you know one time when I was a young man
        I had this tumor
        yeah you know that
        yeah yes sir
        these people act skirt and
        to go it is unlikely right right well good luck to you and you and thank you
        for sharing that with us
        thanks to my questions about the calorie restricted the ability to be romantic
        difference between here Jenny
        today how do you measure
        the test
        that all the details but you do
        yeah seventy-five percent next
        ya know it we we had to struggle with that for a long time
        basing it on because calorie just heard about the calories last night about
        their different metabolic effects we use body weight body weight is the is the
        independent variable is we restrict both groups whether regardless of what
        they’re eating
        we make sure that they have exactly the same body weights and that gives us a
        clear indication of what’s of what’s working or not
        so it’s we use because the bottom the body is the bomb calorimeter the body
        tells you what you’re going to burn and then and the mice have a regulated a
        body weight
        so if you and that’s how we learn if your calorie restricted ketogenic diet
        based on on on on calories and you give the same amount isocaloric the body
        weights are very different
        the reading isocaloric diets but their body weights are different
        what’s going on with that we know we’ve heard all this business so you make sure
        they have the same body weight and then you can vary this see which one is
        working so we use body weight
        here
        and
        musicians and we know that does these vehicles is waiting
        wait you find day that we met
        roughly way the that’s why we have to manage this disease quickly
        all right these diets are not that they’re very hard to sustain in two
        years so we we have to do this weight loss will always this is a weight loss
        time we have all these guys out here telling us about all this stuff
        I mean you’re losing weight it’s a therapeutic weight loss but we had but
        we don’t like Trudy there she had to get off the diet to regain the weight
        all right but you can shift from one kind of a diet to the other kind of a
        diet to try to maintain the weight and you’re absolutely right when we did the
        published paper
        we didn’t know all right we were based on a powerful calorie restriction but
        you’re absolutely right
        you can get the same results with much less calorie restriction as long as you
        can keep the ketones as high as you can get them all right you’re absolutely
        right this is why we have to fine tune the system we are
        he is the ad and me not you know it’s not that they’re not be at the surgeons
        they’re cut they’re not trained this but they don’t get this training in their
        medical education
        okay you’re taking as somebody who’s been trained highly probably skilled
        professional and they’ve never heard of this stuff
        what what’s going on with the training program there right
        why are they not getting that is a major course instead of learning about how out
        tens column is going to be used for one of these other drugs
        so it has to change ok who writes the curriculum for the medical schools and
        who’s doing that figure out what the ok let’s change the curriculum we do it at
        the University all the time
        the core curriculum is always changing based on what’s going on in the world
        you see is on board
        it yeah well maybe that’s needed more you
        you will
        how to make sure where I’m going you know ok

        • Andreas zegt:

          Dank Alex. De techniek staat niet voor niets tegenwoordig😉

        • Alex zegt:

          Gelukkig niet Andreas.🙂 Mocht je tijd/zin hebben om alsnog de tekst na te lopen op rommel, dan houd ik je uiteraard niet tegen, maar voor nu moet het goed zijn.😉

      • Alex zegt:

        Laten we eerlijk zijn, het maken van een transcript is niet gemakkelijk.🙂

        Hier is de door mij gecorrigeerde versie van de eerste 11 minuten:

        “Well, thank you very much Tom and Angela for organizing this and inviting me here and have this opportunity to give you guys an update on some of the things we’re doing in our attempt to manage cancer and I’ll be talking about some fundamentals of the disease and then I’ll give you an update on some of our unpublished work with mice and with people.

        We always have a reality check and update what’s going on in the world of cancer, we have the latest that just came out projections for 2016 I don’t expect you to see the details of these numbers I only want you to know they’re big and they’re getting bigger.
        Alright, so we have the 2016 we have 1.632 people a day dying from cancer. We’re not really sure how many of these people are dying from the cancer or from the treatments that they used to treat the disease. This is a very difficult question. And we also recognize now that brain cancer in children pediatric brain cancer has replaced leukemia as the number one killer cancer killer for children.

        So this situation is not good and something has to be done. So we have a question and this is a provocative question that needs to be addressed in relationship to the origin of the disease. I think if we better understand the origin of the disease, we will have a better chance at managing and preventing the disease.

        All right, so is cancer a nuclear genetic disease or is it a mitochondrial metabolic disease?
        The question is weighted. OK, is the disease resulting from defects in the nucleus of the cell or is it resulting from defects in the cytoplasm and in particular the mitochondria, that we’ve heard a lot about it this meeting, of the cell?
        This is a very important question because it will determine how we approach this disease but with respect to Natalie management but with respect to prevention.

        All right the current dogma: cancer is a genetic disease and the hallmarks of cancer by doctors Hanahan and Weinberg have solidified this over two major papers in 2000-2001 some of the most highly cited papers in the field of cancer. Cancer cells carry the oncogenic and tumor suppressor mutations that define cancer is a genetic disease.
        A dogma is an irrefutable truth. It’s a concept that is no longer challenged or investigated because a dogma is solid and how do I know this is a dogma, how do we know that it’s a dogma when we teach general biology, cell biology and biochemistry at the college level and you look at the sections on cancer, cancer is a genetic disease.
        There’s no other discussion about it. You go to the NCI website ‘cancer is a genetic disease’, there’s no discussion about this. This is a dogma.

        The foundation of the dogma is the somatic mutation theory and that it solidifies the dogma and they use these simplistic diagrams, a car that has no brakes and the accelerator is maximally forward to replicate or to simulate what goes on in a population of cancer cells. Here these cells are at a control. Cell division out of control, they have no brakes and their growth acceleration is out of control and you have this situation.
        So, add a control cell growth, dysregulated cell growth, is the signature feature of this disease, regardless of what tissue or organ it happens to attack.
        Then we place the hallmarks of the disease, as Hanahan and Weinberg have done, in this
        the six major hallmark: sustaining proliferation of aiding growth, activating invasion and metastasis, enabling replicate of immortality, inducing angiogenesis and resisting cell death, all the result of nuclear-driven oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

        Now, in the most recent rendition of their paper, we now entered into emerging hallmarks, hallmarks that have not yet reached the big six. So this concludes this regulated cellular energetics and avoiding immune destruction. If you read their paper in detail, it will say this regulated energetics is now considered an emerging hallmark that is programmed by proliferating inducing oncogenes. Preserving the dogma, ok, this preserves the dogma
        because we’re saying okay you can have this dysregulated energy metabolism but
        the oncogenes are controlling it. Everybody’s happy.

        All right, now we have here is another situation, normal chromosomes normal cell, now all of a sudden cancer arises from a series of our chance mutations in different genes in different places and they say maybe for nobody really knows how many genes are responsible for the origin of the disease. Some people say 1, 2, 4. Michael Stratton his group predict that complete cancer genome sequence will eventually identify 700 million
        mutations. Alright, several of these driver genes and passenger genes and all this
        kind of stuff and they are calling in a Watson, right, the IBM computer down to
        MD Anderson (Cancer Center) to try to figure out what’s going on with all these genes. Good luck to that.

        Now here we have a person staring into a screen, individuals cancer cells are genetically tested for personalized therapy. She’s going to look at these images and breast cancer cells being examined to see if they possess extra copies of a particular gene and based on that genetic information, they’re going to either make some sort of a prognosis or
        they’re going to elicit some sort of therapy and we know from President Obama’s speech a couple of weeks ago and he emphasized in a State of the Union speech ‘personalized therapy is the way we’re going to manage this disease and we’re going to have the honorable Joe Biden lead the charge’. Now I believe Joe Biden has a good heart and I think because the loss of his son to glioblastoma, he has an intrinsic interest to do something about managing cancer. The question is, is he going to receive the information related to the dogma or maybe he might want to consider other options or other possibilities and this is what we don’t yet know.

        Now, one of the most important things about cancer is metastasis, this is what ultimately kills almost all the people that have the disease either that process itself or in the attempts to stop that process. This is a diagram here, you have the cancer cells and they go through this cascade, it’s a very stereotypical cascade, regardless of where the cancer comes from, if it comes from the long, the colon, the breast, the bladder, it goes through the cancer cells invade. OK, these green cells they break through the basement membrane and enter into the local tissue, then they intravasate, enter into the circulation. These are very sophisticated biological processes by which this happens. Immune systems for survival, ok, how come they’re surviving the immune system? We’ll come to that later on. But then they immunosuppressed the immune system and they extravasate, they leave the bloodstream and enter and form these * distant colonization which means that you can’t cut this out there, spreading all over the place so it becomes a very difficult disease but this is a very stereotypical pattern.
        Now according to the dogma, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition is designed to explain this, chance mutations happen in these cells, the cells through these chance mutations enter into the bloodstream and then many of these effects of the chance mutations become reversed in some unknown way and then they start replicating the way they were before they were actually entering into the bloodstream.
        Now I don’t know how a bunch of chance mutations could constantly produce a
        very sticky or stereo typical pattern, how do chance events cause a non chance event.
        I don’t know.

        Now we have a problem. How can we advance new metabolic therapies that the 800-pound gorilla who thinks cancer is a genetic disease and who is the gorilla, the National Cancer Institute, academic and pharmaceutical cancer industries. Dogma rules. If you want to come up with a new therapy, you better make sure it’s associated with dogma. Now we can say we don’t need to do that and we can putz around here with these
        metabolic therapies, but they will be always be on the periphery, they’re not going to be mainstream until the gorilla unasses the room. Now, how are you going to do that?
        All right, you can just do it by continuing to do what many people in this room are doing or you can try to undermine the dogma with the evidence that exists and this is what I’m trying to do, through the scientific argument and the debate related to this disease.

        So, let’s look at the evidence that challenges the somatic mutation theory. Okay I’m going to go through a series of experiments that were done over the years that are inconsistent with the dogma. This work was done by dr. McKinnell who I had the opportunity to talk to at the University of Minnesota, a professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota
        and he did these studies way back in 1969 where he had this, a very aggressive renal tumor in the frog. It’s a lethal malignant tumor, it comes from the kidney and the luck
        frog, what what dr. McKinnell did, is he took the cell out of the tumor, removed the nucleus from the tumor and put it into a enucleated fertilized egg that had normal cytoplasm.
        So you take the nucleus that has the tumor suppressor genes of the abnormal oncogenes with defects and you put it into a new cytoplasm and he generated this tadpole. Alright, there was no dysregulated cell growth in the tadpole. You could cut the tail off, the tail would grow back. The problem is the tadpole never could mature into a fully differentiated
        mature frog. So there was something in that cancer nucleus that block development but it
        certainly didn’t cause the signature defect which is this proliferation.”

        De rest is voor de liefhebber, met tijd over.😉

  5. Grant Schofield over de briesende, Foodloggiaanse en Volkskranteske aanvallen op Paleo in Australië en Nieuw Zeeland:

    http://sciblogs.co.nz/guestwork/2016/08/09/anti-paleo-attacks-miss-point/

  6. Johan zegt:

    In de “alternatieve” of “complementaire” kankerbehandelingswereld wordt al bijna tachtig jaar geaccepteerd dat kanker ontstaat daar waar cellen structureel in erbarmelijke omstandigheden verblijven. Door deze erbarmelijke omstandigheden worden via epigenetische transformaties de zgnd oncogenen aangezet en gaan de cellen in hun strijd om te overleven over op totaal ander gedrag. Cruciaal in deze oncogenesis zijn met name hypoxia, chronic inflammation en vaak ook verzuring van de extracellular matrix. Het is uiteraard een complex verhaal, maar als er 1 sleutelfactor aangewezen moet worden in het ontstaan van kanker dan is het een structureel (intermittent) gebrek aan zuurstof. En als zuurstof slecht/niet voorhanden is, waarom zou je de mitochrondien dan nog laten functioneren? De epigenetische switch naar kwaadaardigheid is inderdaad fundamenteel metabolisch van aard.
    We eten met z’n allen verkeerd, omringen ons met enorme lading toxische stoffen en andere zaken (electromagnetische straling?) en ondertussen wordt gezegd dat je gewoon pech hebt als je kanker krijgt.

    Een mooi paper van Gatenby en Gillies over carcinogenesis:
    https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert_Gillies/publication/8203385_Why_do_cancers_have_high_aerobic_glycolysis/links/0a85e53a172346ec26000000.pdf

    • Ja, dat is overigens een explosieve kwestie. Je hebt natuurlijk vette pech als je het krijgt, maar het is me zeer duidelijk wat je bedoelt. Voor mijn boek probeer ik die pech-vraag tot op de bodem uit te zoeken, omdat mensen het verwarren met schuld. Alleen al het aansnijden van de vraag – hoe genuanceerd en voorzichtig ook – lokt heftige emotionele reacties uit. Aan één van de meest vooraanstaande paleopathologen ter wereld heb ik de uitspraak ontlokt dat kanker er altijd is geweest en er altijd zal zijn, maar dat het voor de landbouwrevolutie ontzettend zeldzaam was, ook onder mensen die ouder werden. Zijn bevindingen reflecteren wat je ziet in contemporaine jager/verzamelaars.

      Fermentatie is een oeroud programma om cellen door periodes van zuurstofgebrek te helpen, alleen bijt het ons in de habitat die we hebben gecreëerd in de gat. Of liever gezegd, het wordt ten onrechte getriggerd en schiet uit de bocht.

      • Johan zegt:

        Het vermeende gelijkstellen van oorzaken en schuld is erg lastig in de communicatie. Dat ben ik helaas maar al te bekend mee. Als ik over dit soort zaken praat met mensen, dan probeer ik altijd ontzettend duidelijk te voorop te stellen dat er geen sprake is van schuld.

        Kanker lijkt mij overigens absoluut een evolutionair voordeel te hebben. Als cellen in een slecht voorziene microomgeving door wat voor reden dan ook moeten kiezen tussen het vormen van een tumor of een nasty celdood, dan denk ik dat, door de lokale erbarmlijke omstandigheden, celsterfte tot acute (dodelijke) problemen zou leiden. Het creeeren van een tumor (een soort afvalvat) geeft het organisme in kwestie nog tijd om zich (verder) voort te planten

  7. Johan zegt:

    Personalized Medicine is niks anders dan een manier om de kosten per patient hoog te houden en de miljardenslurpende kankeronderzoekscentra ad nausea draaiende te houden. Als je hele werkende leven bestaat uit het zoeken van een oplossing, zit je dan ook echt te wachten op de dag dat die gevonden wordt?

    Cynisch? Wellicht, maar hoe ik er ook naar kijk, dat is wat ik zie.

    • Helaas, zo is het. Het is de grimmige realiteit.

    • Andreas zegt:

      Je zou kunnen zeggen dat het spreekwoord “De een zijn dood is de ander zijn brood” inmiddels achterhaald is. Sterker nog we kunnen tegenwoordig stellen “De een zijn brood is de ander zijn dood” als we naar de lezingen van o.a. alessio fasano kijken.

      Weinig cynisch aan overigens. Ik heb het helaas van zeer dicht bij moeten maken en je komt letterlijk in een hele andere wereld terecht.

  8. Melchior, ik ben op zoek naar de lezing van een professor, met een poolse naam?, die de relatie legt tussen voeding en depressie. Stond op je blog. Kan je helpen?

  9. Thanks Alex. Dat het zo Pools was, wist ik ook niet meer😉

  10. Alex zegt:

    Ik heb reeds eerder de interviews van Dominic en Andrew met Damian geplaatst. Goed te volgen mede dankzij transcript en show notes. Deze is ouder, maar zeker niet minder interessant.

    https://thequantifiedbody.net/water-fasts-as-a-potential-tactic-to-beat-cancer/ Thomas Seyfried

  11. Jacco zegt:

    Hier een evolutionaire beschouwing over kanker van een professor natuurkunde, onder het motto dat biologie (en dus ook kanker) alleen vanuit evolutionair perspectief te begrijpen valt.

    • Johan zegt:

      Zoals ik eerder aangaf: Cancer loves hypoxia, glucose, and acid. Hypoxia is DE cruciale factor in het ontstaan en verbreiden van kanker (vooral Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1alpha). Stuhr en collega’s (Universiteit Bergen, Noorwegen) hebben al aangetoond dat hyperbare zuurstof betere resultaten geeft dan 5-FU (een specifiek chemo). En daarnaast zou ik vooral willen wijzen op Ozon, het superzuurstof dat in het lichaam een enorm medicinaal effect kan hebben.

    • Bert zegt:

      Schijnt een belachelijke theorie te zijn van Davies in bovenstaande video…

      Totaal uit de bocht gevlogen.. Een voorbeeld van onnozele afzwaaiers van wetenschappers die op hun eigen terrein succesvol zijn (geweest). En dan vanuit grootheidswaan denken zomaar in andere gebieden even een kunstje te flikken wat grootheden op dat gebied nog niet konden.. Even Guus Hiddinkje spelen.

      Bovenstaande is niet mijn kennis maar de weerslag in deze onderstaande link.

      http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2015/12/06/the-haeckelization-of-paul-davies/

Geef een reactie

Vul je gegevens in of klik op een icoon om in te loggen.

WordPress.com logo

Je reageert onder je WordPress.com account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Twitter-afbeelding

Je reageert onder je Twitter account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Facebook foto

Je reageert onder je Facebook account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Google+ photo

Je reageert onder je Google+ account. Log uit / Bijwerken )

Verbinden met %s